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Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

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Steps to a Profitable Forex trade

Trading is sometimes thought to be simple process of buying and selling by a layman. Trading involves many technical aspects that have to be taken into account lest one will end up loosing money and in the end cursing trading.

Training and attention are the key to a successful forex trade. One needs to be very specific about the strategy that has to be implemented while trading forex.

The first and foremost is the Market Trend which has to be observed very keenly. One needs to know the nuances and keep a tab on the trends and the upheavals that the currencies will be experiencing in the near future. Market trends can go up or down or may go sideways. In 90% situations the trends in the forex market go sideways thus a forex trader should always be ready for it and a range bound strategy would be the most ideal to apply in a currency pair. Range bound strategies work both in sideways and trending markets.

An entry strategy has to be in place at all costs and should be clearly defined and followed by the forex trader. This ensures the entry of the forex trader in the market is based on a set of fixed rules which will surely go along way in the profit making endeavor.

On the lines of the entry strategy there has to be a exit strategy in place. This is the point where a forex trader gets paid for all the efforts and the investments he has made in the forex market. You can’t afford to make a mistake over here. A fixed profit objective of 10 to 30 pips is a reasonable profit objective when the average price move of a currency pair is 30-50 pips, that is the goal of the forex trading strategies used in Thinslice Trading.

By following these tips and being alert and attentive in the forex market one is sure to benefit from this trade and take it a long term career prospective to be followed in the long run. Without a strategy and proper planning no trade in this world can fetch you the profits.

Want to swell your coffers in less time and want to know more about forex trading and online forex along with online forex brokers feel free to visit us at :

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How to Make Money Buying and Selling Estate Tobacco Pipes

One of my favorite things to buy and sell is vintage tobacco pipes. I’ve found it to be very easy to visit different flea markets, yard sales, auctions, and thrift stores and find great deals on vintage pipes.

Your key to success is education. You have to know what you are looking for. Like any type of collectible item, the most important thing to look for is (1) maker’s name, (2) rarity, (3) age, and (4) condition. We will cover each of these in more detail below:

1) Maker’s Name: Some of the more popular tobacco pipe manufacturers include Dunhill, Anne Julie, Teddy Knudsen, Tiffany and more. You also want to keep any eye open for meerschaum pipes. Typically, pipes made by an individual are more desirable than pipes that are mass produced.

2) Rarity: Obviously, the rare pipes are worth more than the common pipes.

3) Age: Typically, older pipes are worth more than newer pipes. There are a few exceptions to this rule, but this is the norm.

4) Condition: Condition is everything. People want the oldest, best and rarest, and they want it in mint condition.

If you are just getting started buying and selling pipes, the best thing you can do is visit your local libarary or bookstore, and get a few reference books. This will help you familiarize with the different types and makes of pipes. Another good option is to visit eBay and search the completed listings to find out which pipes bring the most money.

You will be pleasantly surprised to find that some pipes sell for several thousand dollars or more. And many other vintage pipes sell for several hundred dollars.

Once you’ve reviewed your reference books and eBay, you should start visiting local auctions, yard sales and flea markets and search for pipes. If you see a pipe that catches your eye, check it out.

My general rule of thumb is I never spend more than $5-$10 for a pipe that I don’t know it’s value. When I evaluate a pipe, I use the four criteria mentioned above. Typically, I trust my intuition. If I think a pipe has good potential, I buy it.

In conclusion, buying and selling pipes is a great way to make some extra money. You can get started by studying the different types of pipes and pipe makers. Once you learn the ropes, you can visit flea markets, yard sales and auctions and search for treasure. You will be surprised at what you can find.

To learn more about buying and selling vintage estate pipes visit our Treasure Hunter Community website.

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Have your tax returns 2012 back in your bank account

For many people, paying money in excess on taxes is something that could happen. If you are one of them, you should know that all that money is not definitely lost for you. Specialized companies may be authorized to bring your tax back 2012. If tax returns 2012 are due to you, then you can be sure that the money will be soon in your bank account. Just call such a company and let them start a simple procedure meant to recover the money without requiring serious involvement from your part. Be sure that such companies are very effective and will save you a lot of stress and money.

To have tax returns 2012 back to you, there are two ways. One of them implies your deep involvement, which means you should deal with this by yourself. Of course, you may succeed to get the money back, but at what price? Just put in balance the stress you will experience and you will see it is not worthy at all.

A second way, which you are advised to follow, is to contact a specialized firm, which has the expertise and experience to deal with such situations. They will not ask you to pay any fee in advance and will offer you a free of charge analysis of your tax situation, telling you exactly what is the maximum amount of money that you should get back.

The whole communication with a company of this kind is by email, phone, or SMS. After contacting them, you will be called back and asked to send them any documents you have, related to tax payments. An accountant with many years of experience in taxes will then contact you to discuss deductions and rebates you should benefit from. After a thorough analysis, the final amount to recover will be communicated to you and you will be asked to authorize the firm to represent your interests and get your tax back 2012.

As you can see, your efforts are at a minimum level, because you do not need to even leave your home to follow their simple procedure. Moreover, you can stay in your armchair and spend your time as you wish, while they will work to lodge the money in your bank account. This will happen the very same day you authorized them, or even in less than one hour from that moment.

It is even possible to get back money you already considered lost, like money paid in excess in 2011. The company is able to retrieve your entire PAYG history and see exactly what amounts of money are due to you form past years. If you paid money in excess on taxes last year, you can have your tax back 2012. Contact a specialized company that will bring your tax returns 2012 back in your bank account in a very short time.

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Tips On Writing Your Operations Manual Using The Franchise Operations Manual Template

Franchise Operations Manual Template is the blueprint of your business.

Franchise Operations Manual is one of the most important documents needed for each franchise business. It has a great difference from a successful and a profitable business to a misfortunate performing one. The operations manual serves as a guide when running a business and success of whatever business depends on it.

Writing the franchise operations manual can be a frustrating task but it is important that you have to work hard just to finish it. Rely on yourself; don’t rely on the writing ability of others because you are the person who is well-informed about your business. Tips are as follows to give you a guide throughout the writing process.

o Get ready. If this is your first time writing a franchise operations manual, have yourself familiarize first regarding the document prior to writing. Of course every business is exceptional and there are different business procedures in every company. However, it is not necessary that you get into details about this stage. All you demand to do is to get familiar with this type of documentation.

o The first draft. After you have an idea what a franchise operation manual is you can proceed to writing the first draft of your own manual. As you have already observed, the manual can be a large document so you will probably need a lot of time outlining all the information and even more time writing the details. This is where a specialized franchise tool can aid you. Software products are available which can able to provide you the chief frame of the manual you are writing. If you select to use the Franchise Operations Manual Template software, all you will need to do is to customize the ready template.

o Get the draft reviewed. Once the operations manual draft is ready, review it by letting it read by the other members of the management team. They can also add some important ideas since they also know the nature of your business. In addition, when the manual is read by many, there is a big opportunity for you to have a more polished and better work.

o Get the second draft reviewed by professionals. Once you are almost done in your manual, let a lawful professional review it. This can be useful especially when targeting franchisees from different countries.

o Make it official. Once you have the second draft ready, utilize the final corrections and make the official version of the franchise operations manual. Don’t forget that you can still revise it afterwards depending on the market change and the development of your business.

Completing the operations manual can be hard for you but through the aid of the Franchise Operations Manual Template, you can have the comfort in writing. Purchse now the template and get ready to begin your business.

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Lorem Ipsum

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Aliquam purus lectus, sodales et est vitae, ullamcorper scelerisque urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nulla feugiat, nunc nec gravida varius, nisl tellus dictum purus, a tristique purus lectus eget orci. Vivamus faucibus diam erat, vitae venenatis neque convallis vitae. Etiam eget iaculis arcu. Duis id nisl sapien. Aliquam erat volutpat. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Quisque luctus lorem a odio congue auctor. Suspendisse potenti. Nunc convallis, ante sit amet lobortis eleifend, orci dolor lacinia diam, quis luctus ante magna non sem. Phasellus pretium aliquam enim, a suscipit elit sodales vel. Proin tincidunt quis ipsum in condimentum. Vivamus molestie sodales erat et feugiat. Maecenas venenatis, leo in adipiscing commodo, eros tellus dapibus dui, in dignissim risus ligula id elit.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Nulla facilisi. Donec semper nisi non enim pulvinar venenatis. Vestibulum semper metus.

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Computer Support Virginia Services for Small Business

Computer support Virginia services can allow you to fix any kind of hardware or software related problems of your PC. For small businesses, such services are quiet beneficial a sit can allow them to gain cost effective services.

Easy and fast way of carrying business is by means of using computer as it can assist in smooth running of business. For people running small scale business computer support Virginia services are essential as it can assist in resolving technical problems associated with your computer. In order to solve technical problems you need to have good set of skills and for people running small business it is not possible to carry out all activities single handedly. If you want to prevent your PC from sudden breakdown then it is essential to opt for reliable computer support services. Sudden break down might create problem for you as you might loose all your previous data.

Proper diagnosis of problem is essential to come up with suitable solution related to computer repair. Hiring professional services can make it possible for you to analyze problem and accordingly work over it without spending extra bucks on problem which actually do not exist. Small problems related to installation of anti virus software or corrupt software can be solved by you but when it comes to major problem, you would need computer support Virginia services. Opt for the services which say no to guesswork. Guesswork in technical errors might sometime not work in your favor and can further create more problems related to your PC.

While hiring such services for your small business see to it that professional IT expert is available to identify the problem and provide with solution accordingly. Don’t let the employee of your business assume the problem and apply their own mind to solve it. This might sometime work in your favor but can sometime invite more problems. Also it will waste lot of working time and so hiring professional services can help you to save considerable amount of time. Apart from time factor you also have to look after cost factor. Try to resolve problem as soon as possible before it gets too big and invite spending more amount of money.

Computer support Virginia for small business can be very fruitful in terms of services as well as cost. Look for the service provider who is located near to your business location so that you can save time involved in traveling. Look for the IT professional who can find it easy to resolves different problems related to hardware as well as software. Troubleshooting procedure should be aptly carried out so that further you can find your computer easy to maintain.

NTConnections provides fast data networking services, best it consultants online & exceptional business technology solutions. Opt for more comprehensive technology & Computer Support Virginia.

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Trade Bitcoins As It Is A Hit These Days

When Bitcoin is making great inroads in trading, you can make a lot of money. However, when you trade Bitcoin, make sure that you know about the brokerage firm. Nevertheless, when you are trading Bitcoin you need to first buy them from a secure place like some Bitcoin exchange or some brokerage firm. However, as not all brokerage firms offer Bitcoin, you need to know about their names and addresses as well.

Here comes the role of ForexMinute which brings not just Forex brokers reviews but also Bitcoin news and reviews of the brokers that offer Bitcoin trading. Thus, there are a range of services that this online portal offers. It also helps traders explore various options when it comes where to buy Bitcoins from. Additionally, you need to be careful as several goof ups have been taking place and several traders have lost their valuable investments.

Therefore, make sure that you are in safe hands. Additionally, traders need to visit the online sites of the some popular Bitcoin exchanges such as Mt.Gox, BitInstant, BitStamp, BlockChain, etc. to buy and trade Bitcoin. Additionally, as these are some popular Bitcoin exchanges that have become major player in the virtual currency economy and cater the much needed services for traders, you can trust them till you dont get unpleasant experience.

By unpleasant experience I mean that a lot of times these sites are down and do not provide Bitcoin instantly. Nevertheless, traders who buy and trade Bitcoins from brokers believe that it is often difficult to do as they need to wait at times for a lot of time. Thus, buying them from a Bitcoin exchange is better. One safe place for buying and trading Bitcoin is Plus500, a CFD broker which brings one of the most sophisticated trading services.

Thus, with the help of user-friendly trading platform at Plus500, traders can trade Bitcoin and profit from the same. Also, when you are trading Bitcoin, may get some unpleasing experience as often times you may not get them the way you want. However, you can still trust Bitcoin exchanges like BitStamp, BitInstant, Mt.Gox, etc. Mt. Gox where you can buy Bitcoin from is one of the most trusted names.

Mt Gox is still a leader and over the years it has been receiving accolades and appreciation from buyers. Also, buying Bitcoin and selling them is what helps traders generate profits. Traders buy Bitcoin and sell it at higher prices and the difference in the two is profit.

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Tour Atlantas Federal Reserve Bank Monetary Museum

The Federal Reserve Bank in midtown Atlanta welcomes visitors who would like to tour its Monetary Museum and Visitor Center exhibits. Anyone who has ever wondered just what goes on in a Federal Reserve Bank will find the museum interesting and informative. The self guided tour chronicles the story of money from various forms of barter to modern day e-commerce. The museum also relates the history of banking in the U.S.

The Monetary Museum has interesting examples of what people through the centuries have used as barter, from wampum to Chinese shoe money to gold nuggets. There is an outstanding collection of historical monetary artifacts, including rare coins and currency from around the world as well as some Confederate money. Displays also include an actual gold bar worth $500,000 and a real $100,000 bill.

The Visitor Center has interactive touch screen exhibits which show the role of the Federal Reserve Bank in America. Multimedia exhibits and films explain how the Federal Reserve maintains the stability of the countrys financial system and the economy, and how the Federal Reserve regulates banks. The interactive Bankers Challenge game demonstrates how banks earn profits and manage risk. Through windows in the Federal Reserves cash processing center, visitors will be able to watch the process as robots and Federal Reserve personnel handle large amounts of cash. Millions of dollars are counted and sorted every day. Visitors will see how worn out currency is shredded, and watch as the cash bus goes back and forth all day. Even children will enjoy some of the interactive exhibits and the cash bus. Upon leaving the Visitor Center, guests are invited to take home an unusual free souvenir, a bag of shredded money.

The Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank is located at 1000 Peachtree Street NE. It is a hidden gem in midtown, just a five minute walk from the Midtown MARTA Station and across the street from the Margaret Mitchell House. One of the best things about the Federal Reserve Bank Museum is that admission is free. Visitors to the Federal Reserve Bank must pass through security before entering the building, and at least one adult in the party should have a photo ID. No cameras or bags are allowed, but free lockers are available. The Federal Reserve Bank is open Monday through Friday from 9am-4pm. The facility is not usually crowded, and the museum makes a great stop for people visiting downtown and midtown Atlantas other attractions.

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Patience for Entrepreneurs

Its summer and so for that reason Ill break from my insistence on pragmatic advice and write on a topic you might consider fluff. Yet its the biggest mistake I see small business owners make, including me. We have no patience. I think that its a given that a requirement for being an entrepreneur is to have a low grade case of ADD, or in my case, ADHD with an emphasis on the H. And in marketing, that will kill you.

I cant tell you how many times a client tries something and when there are no immediate results says “Well that doesnt work.” Its like lifting weights one day and expecting that tricep cut to develop overnight. Im not suggesting that we all go out and spend a bajillion dollars on advertising during American Idol. But I do think that in order for your PR and marketing tactics to work you have to learn to wait a bit. Here are a few tips to use to figure out if youre too impatient.

1. Are you measuring your campaign results by the number of orders youre getting off each initiative? In a word, DONT. Look at your website hits instead, or the traffic in your store. Whats the first step toward buying your product or service? Do they request a brochure? Do they visit the website? Measure by those “first steps” in the short term.

2. Are you changing your marketing strategy on a weekly or monthly basis? WRONG. You had better have confidence in your strategy (or your consultant) from the start. Nothing works if you dont believe in it 100% from the beginning. Switching around what youre doing on a constant basis and youll end up running circles.

3. Are you relying on only one outreach method? It may work now, but it will stop working eventually. Or youll end up trying one thing after another. BLEND your messaging channels. If youre doing radio, connect it to an online promotion as well. Trying guerilla marketing? Make sure youve got some PR working in conjunction with those “on the ground” techniques.

Particularly in the online world, patience is the key to success. Jay Conrad Levinson, the founder of Guerilla Marketing, believes that patience is the most important characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Be confident in your approach. Measure it wisely. And then, like that old farmer in the field, be patient and watch the seeds of your marketing work grow.