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Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

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Make Wise Investment Decision By Investing Money In Mutual Funds

In India, although a number of investment instruments are available which provide safe investment opportunities, Mutual fund is considered as one of the best instruments which help in capital appreciation and saving investors from gyrations of the market. For over the past few decades, stock market has shown tremendous growth and for accumulating substantial wealth, it is the need of the hour to include stock in the investment portfolio. By investing in mutual funds, one can actively accumulate huge capital within stipulated time period. Being regulated by SEBI, mutual fund is a company which pools money of numerous investors in various stocks, short and long term money market instruments, bonds and other securities.

An Overview about Mutual Funds

An investor can choose from plethora of mutual fund’s schemes depending upon his needs and requirements as different funds offer different benefits and even costs and expenses structure also varies from fund to fund. With the passage of time, the popularity of mutual funds has increased significantly. It is a fact that even small investors are able to invest in these financial instruments at a reasonable cost and for a longer period of time. Equity funds, fixed income funds, balanced funds are three types of categories in which mutual funds are divided.

On the behalf of the shareholders, mutual fund is professionally and efficiently managed by portfolio managers, who with their expertise knowledge diversify the money over various securities. For reaping the desired monetary benefits of the investments, it is necessary to avail the erudite services of portfolio managers. They keep a track of your investment requirements and give them desired shape by recommending investment alternative which is best suited for an individual.

Avail Advisory Services Online

By searching on the internet, one can find numerous websites that provides personal financial advisory services to an investor. By availing these services, even a novice investor can make wise decisions, depending upon individual investment’s requirements as these websites offer feasible suggestions backed by strong financial analysis. Business giant like network18 is an apt source through which an individual can acquire the investment advisory services or suggestions and fulfill his investment objectives. It is not wrong to say that there is no better alternative for minimizing risk and maximizing returns, then to invest in mutual funds. Therefore, multiply your money manifold by investing money in these instruments.

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Diamond Jewelries – A Perfect Investment For Lifetime

Diamond is the best type of investment event amidst the economic recession. Value of jewelries made up of diamond will not get decreased with time. Main reason behind this is the value of diamond does not get affected by bankruptcies, economic fluctuations, etc. Value of diamond remains stable across the globe and you can sell it any location in the world without having a second thought on its price. Jewelries studded with diamonds can be worn on any occasion and these diamonds are loved by anyone ranging from celebrities to young men and women. Diamond jewelries are used in important occasions like wedding ceremonies, engagement functions, etc. It is now easy to buy diamond ornaments directly from the online store and they have different model of rings, ear studs and various other diamond studded ornaments.
Most people think that real estate is one of the best types of investment however you need to pay taxes on a regular basis. When you have diamond jewelry you will not be continually taxed, so it is always considered as one of the wisest type of investments.

If you are planning to invest in diamond the first thing you need to do is to get the advice from a professional gemologist who has years of experience. He will help you to choose the right type of diamond taking into consideration various factors. A professional jeweler or gemologist will easily choose the high quality diamond based upon its weight, size and shape. Diamond must also be certified by reputed organizations to ensure they are of high quality. One need not have a second thought while purchasing the diamonds certified by reputable organizations. Not to mention, certificate for diamond or diamond jewelry given by a popular institute is completely different from appraisal done by professional gemologist.

Diamond is certified based upon various factors including color of the diamond, dimension, its characteristic and many more factors. Certificate will be of great help for the gemologist to find out the real value of the diamond.
No matter the state of economic condition, be it is recession or stable economic condition pirlanta yzk is the best type of investment. Value of diamond rarely gets affected and it also depends and countless factors, so diamond is the best type of investment forever.
Pirlanta is not affected by wear and tear and it can remain stable for years without getting damaged. If you are planning to invest your hard earned money then investing in diamond is the right type of option.

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Msc Accounting And Finance At The University Of Southampton

If you are thinking about applying to enrol on the MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree at the Management School at the University of Southampton, then here is a quick overview of the course.

The Accounting and Finance MSc course is designed to meet the needs of students who have some knowledge of accounting and finance and who wish to extend their knowledge to an advanced level.

Students who have studied very little accounting or finance and have little relevant work experience are likely to find the programme very challenging indeed.

This MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree course consists of a core covering the main areas of accounting and corporate finance, and a research methods course that supports the dissertation.

Options available on this programme of study allow students to study particular aspects of accounting or taxation in more depth.

For example, there is a pathway within the programme that allows students to concentrate on research-oriented training and more advanced aspects of accounting and finance.

Your understanding of the subjects covered and your ability to use the knowledge and skills gained will be enhanced through a variety of methods and strategies on the MSc Accounting and Finance masters degree.

If you wish to apply to study this MSc in Accounting and Finance you should complete a University of Southampton application form and return it to the Academic Registrar.

Your application to study MSc Accounting and Finance will be carefully considered by a specialist member of the academic staff who will weigh up many factors; not only your academic achievements, interests and aptitudes, but also your motivation and your referee’s confidential report.

At the Management School we make our decisions in most cases on the application form and supporting documents alone. However, candidates who require special consideration, e.g. on grounds of age, disability or non-standard entry qualifications may be interviewed.

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Writing An Effective Hardship Letter To Avail Loan Modification

A hardship letter is the most important piece of document required to apply for loan modification. Its substance and validity will make or break an attempt for a loan workout. This is a letter basically contains an explanation why there is a difficulty of settling mortgage amortization. It is only fitting to compose this letter carefully.

When writing a hardship letter, its important to remember to keep it short, concise but not arrogant. A one to two pages maximum letter is strongly advised. Take note that a lender does not have the luxury of time to read a novel-like hardship letter. This letter serves as outline of ones difficulty to pay for periodic amortization, so it should be direct.

Like any letter, begin with a proper salutation, use font type and size reasonably easier to read. Letter size or 8.5 by 11 inches will be the papers size; otherwise an A4 sized paper can be used.

Bear also in mind that there is a clear definition of the term “hardship” for availing loan modification. Such hardship should fall under listed by mortgage lenders. Such as bankruptcy of business, immediate relocation, or divorce from a spouse who is the co-borrower. There are still more to this, to be sure homeowners should check with their lender.

In the actual writing, the first sentence should tell why such letter is written. This may include the explanation that after all possible ways were exhausted theres still failure to meet with mortgage payments. Much of this should be in the first paragraph of the letter.

The second paragraph should describe the events that affected failure to make regular payments. This description should be done tastefully without being overly dramatic. Overly thought out explanation might appear deliberate and fake. Additional paragraph might be added to explain the intent for loan modification pursuant to financial difficulty.

It is also wise to give approximate, if not exact, duration of the hardship period. This will be the basis for the mortgage lenders to get a head start with its response for loan modification. The last paragraph should emphasize the desire to settle the loan, but asking for leeway, for the time being.

Then end the letter with parting words hoping for a loan modification, which will be favorable to both parties. It is also wise to mention about attachments to the hardship letter, which are proofs of financial difficulty claim.

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Alternative Investments The Modern Way To Gain Higher Returns

Alternative investments tend to provide to the investor a platform that enables earning of money with much fewer risks involvedand a higher ROI (return on investment). It can also be referred to as investments in hedge funds however it is all strategy related. Some alternative investment strategies may includeconvertible arbitrage, fixed income arbitrage, short bias and equity of market neutral. In most cases financial institutions are the holders of the alternative investments. Although these investments are controversial because of the lack of regulation, still economic analyst gives their views on them. They are also subject to scrutiny by politicians and sometimes lack proper disclosure.

The best thing about alternative investments is the rate of very higher returns than the traditional ones. There are many investment plans like giving by AIM (Alternative Investment Market). Established in 90s this platform has turned out to be more useful than the former Unlisted Securities Market, giving investors a chance to gain some profit and pool in the capital. AIM works for the small investors who are potentially not eligible to be listed in the stocks and gives them a free hand with respect to rules and regulations. Although there are some regulations but they do not torture the investor to increase their capital. The most important feature of AIM is that is does not stop investors by putting a check to the number of shares they can issue in the market. This facility gives investors a chance to increase their ratio in the market without much struggle. In the past few years it has also been seen that some investors with their proper time management and skills have managed to make way to enter the main market after successful results achieved in AIM. The London Stock Market has is the proud founder of AIM and had proved to be a rising star in alternative investments.

It is important to understand that investments are risky therefore wherever you invest in something it is important that care shall be taken. It must also be kept in mind that you are sure that you understand the business you are actually investing in. According to experts investing in your own business or some business that you understand is the key to success. Secondly, the management must be on its toes to make sure that a proper check is being kept on where the expenses are being done. Good investments can be done only if it is realized that the results are not hard to achieve if proper measures are taken.

Alternative Investments only require extra care as they are more risky. For instance if you are investing in some art items, you must be sure that you are actually trying to invest in the original one. To be successful in alternative investments it must be made sure that you understand what a man of ordinary diligence would do in similar circumstances.

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Bank Of America Loan Modification — A Simple Five Steps To Approval!

Have you been worried or even just concerned about meeting a high monthly mortgage payment? Perhaps you have been pondering negotiating for a better deal, such as a Bank of America loan modification period. This nationwide lending bank is now offering loan workarounds to some of its borrowers. You can improve your chances of getting the loan modification deal. If you meet certain approval requirements, you can lower your mortgage payment. Before you apply, you need to know about these Five Steps to Approval.

1.Study the Bank of America loan modification approval guidelines. To qualify for a loan workaround program, you must meet specific disposable income and debt to income ratios.

2.Collect all necessary documentation for the bank. A bank officer will review your documents to decide whether you qualify for a Bank of America loan modification. Be sure that you have everything before you apply, in order to avoid any possibility of delay or even denial of your application.

3.A Hardship Letter is an essential part of your document package. You must present convincing, compelling evidence that you have experienced or will suffer from a financial hardship due to your current mortgage payment. There are three essential elements in a Hardship Letter — be sure that you know what they are.

4.Take time to prepare, accurately and properly, the Bank of America loan modification application forms. Everything you state is subject to verification, and so you must include all important information, truthfully, to ensure that your loan workaround is given the maximum possible consideration for approval.

5.Be persistent. Eight weeks is not uncommon for processing time of your Bank of America loan modification application. So be patient as well! Even if you are declined the first time, do not give up. Many homeowners were able to get an initial rejection of their application overturned by being diligent, tenacious, focused, and persistent in their pursuit of an affordable mortgage. Your home is at stake, and a successful application allows you to keep your home.

By studying the guidelines; being diligent, complete and truthful in your application; and persisting in your qualification process, a Bank of America loan modification may well be yours. Take the time and invest the energy in doing the application properly, by understanding the bank’s approval guidelines. Ask any necessary questions for proper completion of the paperwork. Get the help you need and keep your home, as homeowners across the country continue to do. You too can do it!

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The Art Of Body Modification Branding

Through the years, man has unceasingly found ways to express their innate creativity and uniqueness. This is evident in many works of art collected throughout the years. However, such ingenuity is not only confined in crafts, sculptures, and paintings. Some people have literally made their own body as their canvas! These people are not only content of admiring art pieces; they made themselves the living and breathing artwork. This is mainly because some people find extreme satisfaction on being different from the rest or getting the kind of attention they unabashedly seek. Hence, this gave birth to the art of body modification.

The art of modifying the human body was already practiced centuries ago in native tribes as a way of making themselves look more attractive for their mate. It has taken a lot of form, such as body tattoo, piercing and interestingly body modification branding. The latter is unquestionably an extreme art form since it requires burning a part of the skin to create a permanent scar.

Body modification branding or otherwise known as scarification have earlier been used in burning identifying marks on livestock. Centuries ago. Greeks used it as a popular form of punishment for slaves and fugitives. Law offenders are branded on their forehead as a blatant sign of condemnation and to intentionally spur social disdain and disgrace. However, this barbaric act was later banned since it violates the human rights act and is deemed to be an extreme penalty to bear for most people.

Nowadays, body modification branding still exists in some sectors of society. No longer as a severe form of castigation but as a voluntary mark of association to a certain group. This practice is quite common in fraternities and organized crime groups. The scar apparently becomes their official membership mark of some sort. Some people use the body modification branding as a right of passage, especially for people who are aspiring to be a member of an exclusive group.

The body modification branding actually has two methods: the strike, where the artist will use a piece of metal to burn the skin repeatedly and the cautery, which uses a cautery pen to make a permanent scar on the skin. Both produce similar results and the scar is something the person will bear for the rest of his life. People who practice branding would claim it is a freestyle form of art, but a lot of people think otherwise. To the eyes of many, it is still a callous act that should no longer be practiced in this modern age.

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Dubai To Pass A New Law Protecting Investment In Property

The new law will allow anyone who has made an investment in property in the emirate to receive a full refund if a property developer fails to deliver an off-plan property on time. Other occasions in which investors can request to be compensated include breach of warranty and fraud.
The plans for the new law came to light in June when a draft was published. This early version of the law has undergone amendments after a consultation process. Majida Ali Rashid, director of planning and organisational development at DLD, explained that the public and interested parties, which were included in the talks, brought several suggestions to the table.

Boost to investor interest

The final version, which is now being drawn up, will ensure that interested parties are less exposed to risk when it comes to investment in property in Dubai. With the new law, investors receive extra protection in situations where they have suffered from a developers inability to keep the terms of the agreement. This will most probably give a boost to Dubais property market, aiding the recovery which has recently been seen after the market crashed in
2008 following the global economic crises.

Dubai is a country which has attracted serious global interest for investment in property. Over the last decade the country has launched some of the most ambitious infrastructural and development projects in the world such as Dubai Marina, Jumeirah Lakes Towers, Palm Jumeirah and The World Islands. These and other projects have had property investors salivating. According to the emirates Real Estate Regulatory Agency (RERA), Dubai is currently home to 3,094 registered real estate brokers. Nearly 50 percent of this number comes from UAE (620), with Indians (438) and Pakistanis (428) also well represented. Britain comes fourth with 304 brokers.

And with the new protection measures Dubai will become even more attractive destination for property investors across the world, creating a safe and fertile ground for whatever spectacular project developers in the emirate dream up next.

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Cult Wines Ltd – best place for fine wine investment

People are always looking for some new investment sector as per their risk appetite. Yeah many times wrong investment can burn all hard work into ash. So, after having a big recession and still Europe economic crisis on the go one always look for safe investment. In last decade one sector has outperformed in an all recession and it is wine investment and fine wine investment.

Before doing any investment there is certain thing which is very important to take care to be safe and secure. One must have to identify some risk factors and all. So first step is to decide on which sector you want to invest then how much amount, and would you like e o one amount or you want systematic investment plan.

Timing of investment is also plays a big role in high return on investment. The most important point is that when you are investing, the time is very important; its totally depending upon current market condition. If you have analysis of market condition you would opt for wine investment. Look at the statistics for wine investment In UK, before a decade, fine wine portfolio was around 10000 and after decade it is almost 50000.

Wine investment will not have adverse effect if any economic crisis happens globally. As we can see in last recession wine investment standout and gave high return. So one can easily say wine investment can give return even in recession. In last 10 years wine investment has given 900% return which is really impressive and attractive.

Cult wines Ltd is the leader where you can get the rarest wines at very competitive rate and if anyone wants to go to the most safe and secure investment than will preference go to the Cult Wines Ltd also Cult Wines Ltd provides solutions for sourcing, investing, storing, selling and consuming Fine Wine of any kind to the investors or for any type of businessman. Cult Wines Ltd provides the fined tuned portfolio mainly designed for high capital growth and accounts and regulated mostly at warehouses. Cult Wines Ltd mainly deals with active foreign and domestic holdings and if any beginner wants to invest in the market than no safe investment except in wines and Cult Wines Ltd where you will get higher returns on investments and also provides the portfolio management services.

So far by this information I hope one can easily take decision for wine investment and Cult wines ltd can help you to build right wine portfolio.